Tag Archives: colds

What is Sickle Cell Anaemia?

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The disorder affects the red blood cells which contain a special protein called haemoglobin (Hb for short). The function of haemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.

People with Sickle Cell Anaemia have Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) which is different from the normal haemoglobin (HbA). When sickle haemoglobin gives up its oxygen to the tissues, it sticks together to form long rods inside the red blood cells making these cells rigid and sickle-shaped. Normal red blood cells can bend and flex easily.

Blocked blood vessels

Because of their shape, sickled red blood cells can’t squeeze through small blood vessels as easily as the almost donut-shaped normal cells. This can lead to these small blood vessels getting blocked which then stops the oxygen from getting through to where it is needed. This in turn can lead to severe pain and damage to organs.

Who Gets SCDs?

The different kinds of SCD and the different traits are found mainly in people whose families come from Africa, the Caribbean, the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Asia.* In Britain SCD is most common in people of African and Caribbean descent (at least 1 in 10-40 have sickle cell trait and 1 in 60-200 have SCD). It is estimated there are over 6,000 adults and children with SCD in Britain at present. There are other inherited conditions that mainly affect other groups, e.g. Cystic Fibrosis in Europeans, and Tay-Sachs disease in Jewish people.

Thalassaemia is a group of inherited blood disorders where the part of the blood known as haemoglobin is abnormal.

The abnormality means that the affected red blood cells are unable to function normally, which leads to anaemia (a red blood cell deficiency).

Red blood cells

Red blood cells are very important because they contain a substance called haemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.

Haemoglobin is produced in the bone marrow (a spongy material found inside larger bones) using the iron that the body gets from food.

In thalassaemia, haemoglobin production is abnormal, leading to anaemia and a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity. If your body doesn’t receive enough oxygen, you’ll feel tired, breathless, drowsy and faint.

If left untreated, the most serious types of thalassaemia can cause other complications, including organ damage, restricted growth, liver disease, heart failure and death.

Who is affected by thalassaemia?

In England, beta thalassaemia major (BTM) is thought to affect around 1,000 people, with an estimated 214,000 carriers.

It most commonly affects people of Cypriot, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Chinese origin.

In the UK, 8 out of 10 babies born with BTM have parents of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi ancestry.

Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia: A guide to school policy [pdf]

A new law (Section 100 of the Children and Families Act 2014) places a duty on schools and academies to make arrangements for supporting pupils with medical conditions. Research has shown that schools struggle to support young people with sickle cell, but the Sickle Cell Society can offer help and advice. Working with university researchers our advisors have overseen the development of a Guide to School Policy for Sickle Cell.

Teachers are faced with many different possible medical conditions and it is not reasonable to expect them to remember details of all of them. At the same time young people with sickle cell dislike initiatives that draw attention to them as different from their peers,” said Professor Simon Dyson of De Montfort University, who led the team of researchers. “What was needed was a policy that supported the student with sickle cell but which operated in the background without overloading teachers with information”.

The Guide to School Policy for young people with sickle cell is based on examples of good practice and contains a template for drawing up an individual health care plan.

Dyson-School-policy-sickle-cell pdf.

Statutory_guidance_on_supporting_pupils_at_school_with_medical_conditions pdf.

For more information go to www.sicklecellsociety.org There is a great video on the website about Sickle cell and how a young person feels about the condition.

 

British Standard First Aid Kit

Child First Aid

Here is the law as revised recently in relation to First Aid Kits.

Health & Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 (revised 2013).

“An employer shall provide or ensure that there are provided such equipment and facilities as are adequate and appropriate in the circumstances for enabling first aid to be rendered to his employees if they are injured or become ill at work.”

You have a choice when it comes to kits. You can buy an expensive kit to BS8599 standards or you can have a kit that meets the minimum that the HSE recommend. It is your choice.

Your kits must be based on your ‘First Aid Needs Assessment’

How to make sure you meet the new BS8599-1 Standard…

  1.  Undertake a First Aid needs assessment:

LOW RISK (e.g. shops, offices, libraries etc.)

HIGH RISK (e.g. light engineering and assembly work, food processing, warehousing, extensive work with dangerous machinery or sharp instruments, construction, chemical manufacture etc).

 

  1.  Based on risk, choose the appropriate British Standard First Aid Kit:

SMALL KIT USAGE GUIDELINES

LOW RISK   Less than 25 employees

HIGH RISK   Less than 5 employees

MEDIUM KIT USAGE GUIDELINES

LOW RISK   25-100 employees

HIGH RISK   5-25 employees

LARGE KIT USAGE GUIDELINES

LOW RISK     1 Large Kit per 100 employees

HIGH RISK     1 Large Kit per 25 employees

Remember Its your choice on the type of kit.

What does the HSE say?

“Employers may wish to refer to British Standard BS8599 which provides further information on the contents of workplace first aid kits. Whether using a first aid kit complying to BS8599 or an alternative kit, the contents should reflect the outcome of a first aid needs assessment”

Hope this helps

 

Again you can email me on paulkenny@me.com

 

PK

Asthma Use in Schools

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guidance_on_use_of_emergency_inhalers_in_schools_October_2014

New guidelines from the 1st of October 2014 are now available to allow schools in England to keep inhalers and spacers as a emergency treatment if an identified pupil with an agreed careplan has an issue with their inhaler. They do not need a prescription to do this.

Schools can buy and keep emergency school inhalers on site as long as they follow the guidelines issued here in the attached pdf.

Sadly this only applies to primary and secondary Schools and maintained nurseries.

‘Including maintained schools, independent schools, independent educational institutions, pupil referral units and alternative provision academies. Maintained nursery schools are also eligible to hold an emergency salbutamol inhaler’. (‘Guidance on the use of emergency salbutamol inhalers in schools.  P8’).

As usual any questions you can email me.

Links to the government website are here.

PK

guidance_on_use_of_emergency_inhalers_in_schools_October_2014

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/360585/guidance_on_use_of_emergency_inhalers_in_schools_October_2014.pdf

For more information on our Asthma Awareness course email me at paulkenny@me.com

 

 

Incident reporting in schools and Nurseries (accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences) Update

Accident 14   An ‘accident’ is defined as an unplanned and uncontrolled event that has (or could have) resulted in some sort of harm, The harm may be:

  • an injury (eg a cut or fracture)
  • an illness
  • a mental trauma

Major accidents are defined in the Reporting Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).

I get a number of questions as to what should and should not be reported after an accident. Hopefully the attached HSE document should help. Make sure you read all the document to fully understand what should and should not be reported.

Always ensure that parents attention is brought to any accident involving a child.

Requirement to inform parents

The Early Years Foundation Stage requires providers, on the child’s admission, to seek parental permission for any necessary emergency medical advice or treatment in the future. Provider must also inform parents of any accidents or injuries sustained by the child while the child is in their care and of any first aid treatment given. It does not give a timescale in which to do this but it is good practice to do this on the same day. This will normally be when the child is collected from the childcare provider. Most providers do this by asking parents to view the record of the accident or injury and to sign to say they have seen it. If you wish to use this type of approach you must also be aware of the data protection rules and not allow parents to view personal information other than that relating to their own child. The requirement to inform parents is more general than that to notify Ofsted and parents should be informed of any accident or injury especially where first aid is necessary. Where a child is picked up by someone other than the child’s parent, with the permission of the parent, we would normally accept that notifying this person is sufficient to satisfy this requirement. You may wish to establish this practice by including it in the information you give to parents. The Childcare Register does not specifically require you to inform parents, but it remains good practice to do so.

‘Serious accidents, injuries and deaths that registered providers must notify to Ofsted and local child protection agencies’ (A childcare fact sheet October 2011).

If accidents do occur they should be investigated to prevent them from happening again. The main points to consider when investigating accidents that have caused injuries or damage are:

  • ensure that accidents, especially serious ones, are reported immediately;
  • ensure any injured people are safe and given appropriate medical or first-aid treatment;
  • seal off the scene of the accident – this stops other people getting hurt and will save any evidence;
  • record the contact details of any witnesses;
  • take photographs or draw a sketch of the accident scene;
  • take witness statements – this should be in writing and done as soon aas possible;
  • find out what caused the accident and why it happened. Don’t just look at what caused the injury or damage, find the ‘root’ cause, ie the first event that occurred in the series of events that led to the injury or damage;
  • decide what you need to do to prevent the same accident happening again, and do it;
  • review the actions you have taken to ensure they are effective
  • make sure the accident form or book is filled in.

Remember an accident report is a legal document and as such should not be shared or given out without having an audit trail for any requests and ideally these should be made in writing. In some instances It might be advisable to check with your insurance company and or your governing body to ensure that they are happy for the information to be given out and shared. Remember you can’t refuse to show or share the information with parents but it is a legal document so therefore it is advisable to ensure you have an audit trail for such information requests.

Handouts.

Serious accidents, injuries and deaths that registered providers must notify to Ofsted and local child protection agencies Schoolaccidents

Choking for Infants update

Screen Shot 2014-04-17 at 11.58.18Those of you with the Paediatric first aid book from my courses here is an update for you.

Addendum for Paediatric First Aid Handbook January 2014 edition.

Treating a choking infant

Highfield has amended its Paediatric First Aid Handbook and PowerPoint to reflect current accepted best practices with regard to administering back blows to a choking infant. It is now accepted as best practice that the first aider should be in a seated or kneeling position and the infant placed face down along the thigh.

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P 25 Treating a choking infant  (Second bullet point)

Current text:

Place the infant in a downward facing position with the infant’s head at the lowest point. Support the infant’s head by making a cradle with your fingers and thumb of one hand supporting the infant’s lower jaw. The palm of the hand supports the infant’s chest

and the trailing arm supports the infants’ body.

New text:

Place the infant face down along the thigh, with the infant’s head at the lowest point. Support the infant’s head by making a cradle with your fingers and thumb of one hand supporting the infant’s lower jaw.

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Here is a printout you can put in your book.

Paediatric_First_Aid_Addendum

 

 

Accident Form

 

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I have attached a copy of the accident form available from the HSE website.

Click this link to download a sample accidentformv4

Remember to number each book and page.

These are available in tear out pages of 50 for £5.70 each.

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They are available at this link:

http://books.hse.gov.uk/hse/public/saleproduct.jsf?catalogueCode=9780717664580